Using a longitudinal screening-model, 772 mothers were screened for postnatal depression after delivery. This model contains the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). The first screening was 6--8 weeks after delivery with the EPDS. Mothers with high scores in first screening had a second screening 9-12 weeks after delivery with the EPDS. Time between first and second screening was at least three weeks. Mothers with high scores in both screenings were investigated with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Classification was performed with the DSM IV. After observation until the 3 rd month after delivery 3.6% (N = 28) of the 772 mothers were diagnosed with postnatal depression. Different methods of therapy were offered to those mothers. 18% (N = 5) accepted one or more of these methods of treatment. The rest of the mothers with postnatal depression refused - mostly for factual or practical reasons. 13.4% of the mothers showed high scores in the first screening but not in the second. For those mothers a longitudinal observation is currently being performed to distinguish between a depressive episode and a depression with oscillating symptoms.