Over the past 30 years, there has been increasing research in the areas of the identification, and measurement, of the relationship between the parents-to-be and their unborn child. This research is of importance because of the potential link between prenatal attitudes and attachment and parental behaviour both before and after birth (Condon & Corkindale, 1997; Pollock & Percy, 1999). The literature on prenatal attachment has clearly demonstrated that individual differences do exist in this early relationship, varying from being highly "attached" early in the pregnancy to demonstrating low, or no, attachment during pregnancy (Doan & Howell, 1998). Doan, Zimerman and Howell (1997, 1998) also found that, even prior to becoming pregnant, there are individual differences in nonpregnant men and women in the ability to conceptualize being pregnant and attached to the fetus, and the extent to which this conceptualization is positive. In this paper, using data collected from several of our research projects, we will discuss some of the factors that contribute to the variability in prenatal attachment, relevant measurement issues and the implications for both future research and clinical work with families.