Introduction: Although the frequency of premature labour in high developed countries is established in only 6-8% of all labours, it is the cause of perinatal mortality in about 75%. It is known that the beginning of the labour is a very complicated process, in which both mother and fetus take part, but as one of the most important factors is regarded infectious factor. Bacteria and their endotoxins induce increased prostaglandin's synthesis, which stimulate uterine contracting activity. Material, Methods and Results: Between 1997-01-01 and 1999-07-31 in the Septic Ward of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jagiellonian University Hospital in Cracow, 727 labours took place. 151 of all labours were premature (20,7% ). Premature rupture of membranes was identified in 38 pregnant women (5,2% ). At the moment of admission on the ward the dilation of the external cervical os was as follows: no dilation - 78 pregnant women (50,03%), < 1 cm - 42 (27,81 % ), from 1 to 3 cm - 19 (12,58% ), from 3 to 5 cm - 8 (5,29%) and > 5 cm - 6 (3,97% ). In spite of tocolitic management (Partusisten, Magnesium sulphate), between 24 and 37 weeks of gestation, 151 women laboured, in which in 87 cases (57,61 % ) it was spontaneous labour, in 20 (13,24%) - labour by speculum using, in 24 (15,89%) by caesarean section, in 19 (12,58%) - pharmacologically supported vagial delivery, and manual fetal extraction procedure in 1 case (0,062% ).113 neonates was born alive (74,83% ), in which 9 with congenital defects (5,96%) and 38 was stillborn (25,16% ).The neonates' estimation by using Apgar scale was as follows: 8-10 points - 55 neonates (48,68%), 5-7 points - 24 (21,24% ), < 5 points - 34 (30,10% ). Conclusion: Premature labour is associated with high rate of perinatal mortality and congenital defects.